Frequently asked questions about laparoscopy and hysteroscopy (2023)

What are the advantages of laparoscopic surgery? What are the risks of laparoscopic surgery? What are the possible complications after laparoscopic surgery? What can I expect immediately after laparoscopic surgery? What is the normal recovery time after laparoscopic surgery? When should I contact my doctor after laparoscopic surgery? Can I have other procedures during laparoscopy? Will I have a catheter in my bladder during laparoscopy? What is endometriosis and how is it diagnosed? How is endometriosis treated? Can endometriosis be treated laparoscopically? What is the treatment for ovarian cysts? What are fibroids? Can fibroids be removed laparoscopically (myomectomy) instead of hysterectomy? Can fibroids be removed laparoscopically if they are inside the uterus (submucosa)? Is it always an option if I want to have a laparoscopic hysterectomy? Will my cervix need to be removed during a hysterectomy? Why should you consider a subtotal hysterectomy instead of a total hysterectomy? What are the other options for hysterectomy?

What are the advantages of laparoscopy?
Recovery time immediately after surgery is faster. Patients usually go home after just 11pm to recover in the comfort of their own home. Smaller incisions tend to be less painful, so patients often need less pain medication after surgery. Wound infection is less common. Cosmetic results are also appealing, as healing is limited to three or four skin incisions less than half an inch.

What are the risks of laparoscopic surgery?
The risks of laparoscopic and open surgery are similar. First, there is always the possibility that the surgeon will not be able to perform the procedure laparoscopically. This may be the result of unexpected complications or a laparoscopic procedure that cannot be performed safely. Complications unique to laparoscopy include damage to the bowel, bladder, and blood vessels during insertion of surgical instruments and herniation at the incision site. Other non-specific complications of laparoscopy include infection, bleeding, and deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs). Death is also a potential but rare complication of any type of surgery.

What are the possible complications after laparoscopic surgery?

wound infection

blood stasis

formation of bruises

complications related to anesthesia

Injury to the blood vessels of the abdominal wall or the side walls of the lower abdomen and pelvis. urinary tract or bowel injury

What can I expect immediately after laparoscopic surgery?
Generally, you may experience any of the following symptoms within the first twenty-four to forty-eight hours

nausea and dizziness

Itching in the throat if a breathing tube is used during general anesthesia

pain around the incision

abdominal pain or uterine cramps

Scapular pain - secondary to carbon dioxide

Navel (navel) sensitivity.

feeling gassy or bloated

Vaginal bleeding or discharge (such as menstruation)

What is the normal recovery time after laparoscopic surgery?
Recovery depends on the type of surgery you have. Most patients feel well for a few days after surgery. But if you have major surgery, you still need to rest. Most patients will need some form of pain medication immediately after surgery. Before discharge, you will receive a prescription for narcotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. It is recommended that you avoid heavy lifting (more than 10 pounds), jumping, and running for up to 4 weeks after surgery. Intercourse should also be postponed for 4 weeks. It is best not to insert anything into the vagina, including tampons, for at least 4 weeks. The time of return to work depends on the procedures performed. Most patients who have undergone ovarian cystectomy or ectopic pregnancy can return to work within two weeks. If a hysterectomy is performed, a break of 4-6 weeks is recommended. Your doctor will discuss this with you after surgery and help you make an informed decision.

When should I contact the doctor after laparoscopy?
Contact your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms:

profuse bleeding from the incision

fever or chills

problems with urination or defecation

heavy vaginal bleeding

severe or worsening abdominal pain


Redness or discharge from cuts on the skin

shortness of breath or chest pain

Will I have a catheter in my bladder during laparoscopy?
Most patients have a catheter inserted during surgery. The catheter is removed in the operating room or within 6 to 12 hours after surgery. Sometimes the catheter has to be reinserted because the patient is unable to urinate. If this happens, the catheter is usually removed after 24 hours to give the bladder a chance to heal.

Can I have other procedures during laparoscopy?
Yes, sometimes both programs are scheduled at the same time. Hysteroscopy is often performed simultaneously with laparoscopy. Women may also choose to undergo another elective surgery combined with gynecological surgery. Concurrent procedures include liposuction, cholecystectomy and breast implants.

What is endometriosis and how is it diagnosed?
Endometriosis is a condition in which the lining of the uterus (endometrium) is located somewhere other than the uterine cavity. Endometriotic implants can be found on the side walls of the pelvis, fallopian tubes, ovaries, intestines, bladder and less often outside the pelvis. Like the endometrium, these implants go through similar changes due to cyclical hormonal changes. The implant may swell and bleed every month, causing pain. Endometriosis can also cause cysts and adhesions. It occurs in about 20% of women. The most common symptoms of endometriosis are menstrual pain, irregular bleeding and infertility. There is currently no simple test to diagnose endometriosis. The only way to definitively diagnose endometriosis is laparoscopy and biopsy. Rare and large endometrial lesions can be diagnosed by ultrasound.

How is endometriosis treated?
Endometriosis can be treated with medication, surgical removal, or a combination of both. You should discuss treatment options with your gynecologist.

Can endometriosis be treated laparoscopically?
That. The diagnosis of endometriosis requires a laparoscopic biopsy. Endometriotic implants can also be treated with laparoscopic excision or cauterization. This treatment often provides more immediate results in pain relief and fertility than drugs.

What is the treatment for ovarian cysts?
Cysts are cavities filled with fluid. Cysts are often found on the ovaries. Ovarian cysts are usually diagnosed with a pelvic exam or ultrasound. If the cyst is completely filled with fluid, it is called a "simple cyst". Ovarian follicles can appear as simple or sometimes complex cysts on ultrasound as they mature. These cysts usually disappear in one to two months. Simple cysts are almost always benign. They should be removed if they are larger than 5-6 cm in diameter or if they cause symptoms. A cyst is classified as a "complex cyst" if it contains echogenic structures (ultrasonographic shadows). Complex cysts can represent endometriosis, infection, benign tumors and rare malignancies. Laparoscopic evaluation and possible resection of complex cysts is generally recommended. Most ovarian cysts can be removed laparoscopically.

What are fibroids?
Fibroids are benign uterine growths. It occurs in 20% to 25% of women. Fibroids most often occur in women between the ages of 30 and 40, but they can appear at any age. Women can have one fibroid or multiple fibroids. Fibroids also vary in size, from the size of a small bladder to more than 6 inches in diameter. Some women may have no symptoms, while others may complain of menstrual changes, pain, stress, miscarriage and infertility.

Can fibroids be removed laparoscopically (myomectomy) instead of hysterectomy?
That. In some women, fibroids (benign growths in the uterus) can be removed by laparoscopy. This procedure is limited to fibroids on the outside of the uterus (peniculated) or just below the uterine wall (subserosal). Fibroids buried deep in the uterus cannot be removed with this method. Fibroids are then crushed (grinded) and removed through small incisions. Sometimes after a myomectomy, it can enter the uterine cavity and require stitches. This can usually be done using special laparoscopic instruments, but rarely a small ("mini") pfannensteil ("bikini") incision is made to repair the uterus. A hysterectomy is rarely necessary due to profuse bleeding or the inability to restore the uterus. Medicines (GnRH agonists) are sometimes given before surgery to shrink fibroids and control bleeding.

Can fibroids be removed laparoscopically if they are located in the uterus (submucosa)?
Not. If fibroids (benign growths in the uterus) are only inside the uterus, they cannot be treated laparoscopically. Instead, your doctor may recommend a hysteroscopy approach.

If I want to have a laparoscopic hysterectomy, is that always an option?
In most cases, the uterus can be safely removed by laparoscopy. This is not an option when the uterus is very large (larger than the size at 18 weeks pregnant). Recovery after laparoscopic hysterectomy is usually faster than after abdominal hysterectomy. To help you choose the most appropriate and safest procedure, your doctor will consider all of these factors before performing a laparoscopic hysterectomy.

Is it necessary to remove the cervix during a hysterectomy?
No, some women decide to have a subtotal hysterectomy. It simply means that the fundus of the uterus has been removed and the cervix is ​​preserved. The uterus is removed with the help of a pulverizer (mill). This device allows the surgeon to remove a large uterus through small incisions. Not all women are candidates for subtotal hysterectomy. A previous history of abnormal Pap smears is a contraindication for this approach. To help you choose the most appropriate and safest procedure, your doctor will consider all of these factors before performing a subtotal hysterectomy. All women who have had a subtotal hysterectomy should still have annual Pap smears.

Why should you consider a subtotal hysterectomy instead of a total hysterectomy?
The operation is usually faster, has fewer surgical complications and allows a faster return to normal activities. There is also some evidence that there is less damage to the pelvic floor and therefore less pelvic prolapse requiring further surgery in the future. The cervix can also play a role in the female orgasm. Many women require a subtotal hysterectomy to preserve the sexual function of the cervix. However, it is important to realize that many women who have a total hysterectomy have very normal sexual function.

What are the other alternatives to hysterectomy?
Depending on your symptoms, there are several different alternatives to hysterectomy. Most hysterectomies are performed for abnormal bleeding or fibroids. If you have irregular bleeding and the uterus is not large, endometrial ablation (destroying the lining of the uterus) may be a viable option for a hysterectomy (see Hysteroscopy section). If you have fibroids, a myomectomy (removal of the fibroids) may be a possible treatment. Uterine artery embolization may be an alternative to hysterectomy if you have large fibroids. You should discuss all these questions with your gynecologist before deciding to have a hysterectomy.


What is the most common complication of laparoscopy? ›

Severe complications such as vascular injury and bowel perforation are the main cause of morbidities and mortality related to laparoscopic surgery.

What questions to ask after a laparoscopy? ›

Frequently asked questions about Laparoscopic post-operative care
  • Why there is pain even after laparoscopic surgery?
  • Why there is swelling and bruise around incision?
  • Will there be any scars?
  • How should I care for the incisions?
  • When and what should I eat?
  • Can I take bath after operation?
  • Oh!

How long does it take to recover from a laparoscopic hysteroscopy? ›

It may take at least 4 to 6 weeks for you to feel completely better after your surgery. The first two weeks are most often the hardest. You may need to take pain medicine regularly. Most people are able to stop taking pain medicine and increase their activity level after two weeks.

What are the risks of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy? ›

The most common risks include post operative bladder and skin irritation. Adhesions may develop in some cases also. Hematomas (bruises filled with blood) can occur at the site of incision in severe cases. Most complicated risks associated with laparoscopy are damage to the bowels, uterus, blood vessels, ureter.

What is a rare known risk of laparoscopic surgery? ›

Serious complications after laparoscopy are estimated to occur in 1 out of every 1,000 cases. They include: damage to an organ, such as your bowel or bladder, which could result in the loss of organ function. damage to a major artery.

What is a rare complication of laparoscopic surgery? ›

These include cardiorespiratory problems, biliary leakage, peritonitis, hemorrhage and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion.

How many days does it take to recover from laparoscopic surgery? ›

Recovery times

It depends on factors such as the reason the procedure was carried out (whether it was used to diagnose or treat a condition), your general health and if any complications develop. If you've had laparoscopy to diagnose a condition, you'll probably be able to resume your normal activities within 5 days.

What not to do after laparoscopic surgery? ›

How can you care for yourself at home?
  1. Rest when you feel tired. ...
  2. Try to walk each day. ...
  3. Avoid strenuous activities, such as bicycle riding, jogging, weight lifting, or aerobic exercise, until your doctor says it is okay.
  4. Avoid lifting anything that would make you strain. ...
  5. You may also have some shoulder or back pain.

What are the post problems after laparoscopy? ›

Following a pelvic laparoscopy, use sanitary napkins instead of tampons to cope with any vaginal bleeding or discharge. If you experience high fever, chills, vomiting, difficulties urinating, increasing redness at the incision site or a worsening of pain, contact your doctor immediately.

What is the most common complication of hysteroscopy? ›

Perforation. The most common perioperative complication of hysteroscopic surgery is uterine perforation 48 49. Known risk factors for uterine perforation are listed in Table 2 . Management of uterine perforation is dependent on the location, cause, and severity of the uterine perforation.

Do you need bed rest after hysteroscopy? ›

You can usually return to your normal activities later the same day or the following day if no anaesthetic or just a local anaesthetic was used. If you had a general anaesthetic, you may need to take things easy for a day or 2. Read more about recovering from a hysteroscopy.

How long is pelvic rest after hysteroscopy? ›

Most women feel they can return to normal activities, including work, the day after having a hysteroscopy. Some women return to work later the same day. However, you may wish to have a few days off to rest, particularly if you had treatment such as fibroids removal and/or a general anaesthetic was used.

What to expect after a laparoscopy and hysteroscopy? ›

Expect some swelling and soreness around the surgical site during the first 24 to 48 hours following surgery. You may have some abdominal cramping, nausea and increased urination. You may experience gas pains for about a day or so due to gas administered during the procedure.

Can laparoscopy and hysteroscopy be done at the same time? ›

If you have a suspected diagnosis of endometriosis, uterine fibroids, endometrial polyps, uterine anomalies, or for those with a history of pelvic infection, your doctor may use laparoscopy and hysteroscopy alone, or simultaneously, to definitively diagnose and treat these conditions.

Do they put a catheter in during laparoscopy? ›

During laparoscopic surgery, placement of an indwelling urinary catheter is a routine procedure to improve the surgical field, prevent iatrogenic injury, reduce the incidence of urinary retention and allow the accurate assessment of urinary output during surgery [[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]].

When should I be concerned after laparoscopy? ›

Cramping or pain that is not relieved by prescribed pain medicines. Severe nausea and vomiting more than 24 hours after surgery. Fever more than 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) Redness or drainage from the incisions.

What are the long term side effects of laparoscopic surgery? ›

Laparoscopic surgery can lead to adhesions, which are post-surgical scars. Adhesions can lead to problems like abdominal pain, infertility, or bowel obstruction several years after the surgery.

What is not normal after laparoscopy? ›

Contact your healthcare provider immediately if you experience any of the following: Persistent nausea and vomiting for more than 24 hours. Temperature over 100 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 24 hours. Redness, swelling, soreness, drainage or bleeding around your wound.

How long does it take to recover from laparoscopic surgery? ›

Recovery times

If you've had laparoscopy to diagnose a condition, you'll probably be able to resume your normal activities within 5 days. The recovery period after laparoscopy to treat a condition depends on the type of treatment.


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