Foot and mouth disease is one of the most economically important viral diseases of cattle in the world. The virus infects cattle, pigs, sheep and many artiodactyls. The infection causes blisters in and around the mouth and feet, making the animal reluctant to eat or move. Confirmation of infection requires laboratory analysis, usually with real-time RT-PCR, in addition to antigen ELISA serotyping. Inactivated virus vaccines are available.
Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease caused by infection withvirus aftoso, a member of the Picornaviridae family. There are seven serotypes of the virus known as: A, O, C, Asia 1, and SAT (South African Territory) 1, 2, and 3. Within each serotype, greater diversity is found among strains. The virus mainly affects artiodactyls from the order Artiodactyla. Livestock hosts are cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. Foot-and-mouth disease has also been reported to affect more than 70 wild artiodactyls, including African bison, bison, giraffes, camels, and several species of deer and antelope.
Foot-and-mouth disease is characterized by fever and blisters in the mouth, muzzle, teats and legs of animals, and is transmitted by contact with infected animals or their feces. The virus can also be transmitted in the form of aerosols by respiratory secretions and milk, semen and food (meat and offal) of infected animals. In a susceptible population, morbidity can reach 100%, but deaths are rare except in young animals. Foot-and-mouth disease is widespread worldwide, but has been eradicated in some areas, including North America and Europe. In endemic countries, including much of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia (see figure), foot-and-mouth imposes economic constraints on international livestock trade and can easily be reintroduced into disease-free areas unless strict precautions are taken. Epidemics can seriously disrupt livestock production and require significant control resources, such as the 2001 outbreak in the United Kingdom. The epidemic lasted about 8 months and caused an estimated damage of 10 billion dollars. In non-endemic countries, most of the costs of disease outbreaks are caused by commercial losses and the large number of animals killed to limit the spread of the disease, rather than the direct impact of the disease on the performance of infected animals.
Epidemiology and transmission of foot-and-mouth disease in animals
Different foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes were unevenly distributed in endemic areas. About 70% of global epidemics are caused by serotype O of the FMD virus. Six of the seven serotypes appeared in Africa (O, A, C, SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-3). , four in Asia (O, A , C, Asia-1), three in Comes in South America (O, A, C). North and Central America, Australia, New Zealand, Greenland, Iceland and Europe are now generally free of FMD (the last outbreak in Europe was in Bulgaria in 2011). Since 2004, foot-and-mouth disease serotype C has not been reported anywhere, and it can now be eradicated outside the laboratory. However, vaccination against this serotype still exists in some places, so it is difficult to prove that the virus is completely absent in the field.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected animals or indirect contact with secretions or feces (including semen and milk) of infected animals or mechanical carriers (humans, horses, dogs, cats, birds, vehicles) or air flow over land or water Viruses they can enter the host by inhalation, ingestion or through cracks in the skin and mucous membranes. Breeding is a possible route of SAT virus transmission in the African buffalo population.
A potential scenario for the introduction of the virus into previously FMD-free areas is the supply of imported feed (meat or offal) from infected animals to susceptible populations such as pigs. The virus then spreads from pigs, which have 3,000 times more virus than cattle, to the more susceptible host cattle. The virus was recorded to travel more than 250 km (~150 miles) in waters from Brittany, France, to the Isle of Wight, UK in 1981, but usually did not travel more than 10 km (~6 miles) over land. Foot-and-mouth disease has a high potential for agroterrorism due to its infectious nature, large spread by wind and pollutants, and potential for large economic losses.
Humans can act as mechanocarriers of foot-and-mouth disease by transmitting the virus on their clothing or skin. However, foot and mouth disease is not considered a public health problem.
FMDV is resistant to the environment, but is easily inactivated outside the pH range 6-9 and by drying and temperatures >56°C. Resistant to lipid solvents such as ether and chloroform, but sodium hydroxide (lye), sodium carbonate (soda ash), citric acid and acetic acid (vinegar) are effective disinfectants. Iodophors, quaternary ammonium compounds, hypochlorites and phenols are less effective disinfectants, especially in the presence of organic substances.
The foot-and-mouth disease virus enters the milk of cows before clinical symptoms appear, so the virus has the opportunity to spread from farm to farm through raw milk and from cow to cow. Depending on the method (short-term high temperature, ultrahigh temperature, laboratory pasteurization), FMDV can survive pasteurization; the lipid components of milk protect the virus during heating. FMDV can survive up to 20 weeks in hay or straw, up to 14 days in dry manure in summer, up to 6 months in faecal sludge in winter, 39 days in urine and 3 days in soil (summer) up to 28 (winter) days. However, the extent to which viruses survive on these materials depends on the degree of initial contamination.
Characteristics of animal foot-and-mouth disease virus
Like other picornaviruses, FMDV has a positive-sense RNA genome. The RNA sequence is approximately 8500 nucleotides long and includes a large open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a large polyprotein (approximately 2330 amino acids long). During and after the synthesis of this polyprotein, it is mainly processed by virus-encoded proteases to create mature proteins. The structural proteins of the virus (designated as VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4) are produced from the capsid precursor P1-2A (see image of foot-and-mouth RNA genome). A nearly spherical viral particle (approximately 25-30 nm in diameter) includes 60 copies of each structural protein and one copy of the viral genome. Proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 are exposed on the outer surface of the virus, while VP4 is completely inside the virus.
The viral capsid serves to protect the RNA genome when it is outside the host cell and facilitates entry into the cell by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. After internalization of the virus, the RNA genome is released into the cytoplasm of the cell. It is translated into viral proteins, including several nonstructural proteins, some of which are then used to replicate the RNA genome (via negative-sense RNA copies). Capsid proteins package positive-sense RNA to form new viral particles. Within hours, thousands of new viral particles can be produced within infected cells.
Pathogenesis of animal foot and mouth disease
The main site of infection and reproduction of the foot-and-mouth disease virus is the mucous membrane of the pharynx. Viruses can also enter through skin lesions or the gastrointestinal tract. After being distributed through the lymphatic system, the virus replicates in the epithelial cells of the mouth, snout, teats, feet, and areas of damaged skin (e.g., knees and hocks of pigs). Vesicles then develop and burst within 48 hours. More than 50% of ruminants that recover from disease and ruminants that have been vaccinated and then exposed to the virus may be carriers, that is, have low levels of infectious virus in the pharyngeal area. The carrier state can last up to 3.5 years in cattle, up to 9 months in sheep and >5 years in African bison. Surprisingly, this persistent infection does not occur in pigs. The risk from these vectors appears to be low (but not zero) as it is not possible (under controlled conditions) to transmit the disease from carrier cattle to young cattle through prolonged close contact. However, the disease is transmitted from infected buffalo to cattle and also by direct transfer of pharyngeal fluid from infected cattle to young calves.
The incubation period for FMD is variable and depends on the host, environment, route of exposure, and virus strain. The average incubation period of sheep and goats infected with plague virus is 3-8 days, pigs ≥ 2 days and cattle 2-14 days. The incubation period for host-adapted pig strains can be as little as 18 hours, especially under intense direct contact. It is important to note that animals can shed the virus before clinical signs appear, since the virus is present in the animal's throat and blood before the disease is noticed.
Clinical manifestations of foot-and-mouth disease in animals
Clinical signs in cattle include a temperature of approximately 40°C followed by vesicular lesions on the tongue, hard palate, dental pads, lips, gums, muzzle, crown cords, interdigital fissures and teats in lactating cows. Severely affected persons may drool profusely (drool), stamp their feet and prefer to lie down. Bursted mouth blisters may coalesce to form erosions, but they heal quickly about 11 days after blistering. Foot blisters take longer to heal and are susceptible to bacterial infections, which can lead to chronic lameness. secondary bacteriamastitis Bovine mastitis With few exceptions, mastitis occurs when microorganisms enter the teat through the teat ducts. Almost any microorganism can opportunistically invade the milk ducts and cause mastitis. However, most infect... Read more » This is usually due to resistance to milking due to infected teat blisters. After blister disease, cows quickly lose health and milk production decreases, which can last for a long time. Occasionally, calves may die without clinical signs of disease due to virus damage to the developing heart muscle.
Infected pigs show mild lameness and pericoronal pallor and can develop a temperature of up to 41.5°C. Infected pigs become lethargic, huddle among other pigs and show no interest in food. Vesicles form on the crowns and heels, including the appendages, nose, jaw and tongue. Pigs raised on rough surfaces may develop additional blisters on the hocks and knees. Depending on the severity of the blister, the horns may fall off completely, causing chronic lameness in the recovering pig. Young pigs under 14 weeks of age may die without symptoms of viral myocarditis; this is more common in pigs than in calves.
Clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease in sheep and goats are mostly subtle. However, lameness is usually the first clinical sign of foot and mouth infection seen in sheep and goats. This is followed by fever and blisters on the fissure, calcaneus, coronal band and mouth. Blisters can also form on the nipples of mammals and, rarely, on the vulva and prepuce. Secondary infection can lead to reduced milk production, chronic lameness and susceptibility to other viral infections, includingsheep/goat goddesses Goat Pox and Goat Pox Goat Pox Virus (Electron Microscope). Chicken pox and chicken pox are serious, often fatal diseases characterized by a widespread rash. Both diseases are limited to parts of Southeast Europe... Read more » gPasta of small ruminants Pasta of small ruminants Similarly to young pigs, infection of young sheep and goats can lead to asymptomatic death from heart failure.
Experimentally infected camels have been reported to often have mild, if any, clinical disease, but may develop severe infections, resulting in drooling and oral lesions, as well as loss of skin on the foot pads and joints, tarsus, and carpus. Buffalo may have lesions in the mouth and paws that heal faster and are less severe than cattle. Foot-and-mouth disease in wild animals resembles the clinical disease of their domestic animals, but more serious injuries, such as loss of horns or toe horns, have also been reported.
Aging of lesions is an important part of epidemiologic investigation of foot and mouth disease outbreaks. Government agencies and professional societies have produced brochures that can assist clinicians in estimating the age of clinical lesions in foot and mouth disease. All of this is freely available on the Internet.NAS.gEuropa.
Diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in animals
Detection by RT-PCR, serology or virus isolation
In cattle and pigs, clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease are associated withvesicular stomatitis vesicular stomatitis , and those pigsvesicular disease of pigs vesicular disease of pigs ,Herpes swine herpes and Seneca Valley virus infection. Therefore, laboratory confirmation is essential for the diagnosis of FMD and should be performed in a specialized laboratory that meets the OIE Class 4 pathogen containment requirements. Countries that do not have access to national laboratories or regional authorities that comply with these guidelines should send samples to the OIE Reference laboratory for FMD.
The tissue of choice for sampling was vesicular or liquid epithelium. At least 1 g of epithelial cells should be placed in the transport medium of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or equal parts glycerol and phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2–7.6). Samples must be refrigerated or shipped on ice. If no vesicles are present, oropharyngeal fluid can be collected using a test cup or throat swab for virus isolation or a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) test. Serum (blood) samples can also be tested in these ways (OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code 2019), but the viremia is quite transient (several days); therefore, by the time the lesion heals, the virus has been removed from the blood and antibodies can be detected. Repeat oropharyngeal fluid samples may be required to identify carriers, as virus levels in such animals are low and variable.
Laboratory diagnosis is usually performed by real-time RT-PCR detection; two separate assays targeting two different regions of the RNA genome are usually used. These tests are so sensitive that they can detect FMDV genomes even in samples improperly preserved after loss of viral infectivity. The presence of the virus can also be proven by the ELISA antigen test, which enables determination of the serotype. This is the method of choice for virus detection and serotyping in foot-and-mouth endemic countries (OIETerrestrial Animal Health Code2019). In reference laboratories, the portion of the genome (encoding the capsid protein) is often sequenced to determine the serotype and lineage of the strain. Simultaneous virus isolation can be performed in a suitable cell culture system. Commercially available lateral flow devices for rapid pen tip detection of viral antigens have proven useful.
Serological tests for FMD are used to prove import or export of animals (i.e. trade), identify suspected cases of FMD, test vaccine efficacy and provide evidence of absence of infection. Herd-based surveillance and restrictions on tests to prove the absence of infection for commercial purposes can be set at different levels. The choice of serological tests depends on the animal's vaccination status. Serological determination of antibodies against viral structural (capsid) proteins is not informative in vaccinated animals because the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine induces antibodies against these proteins. However, detection of antibodies against nonstructural proteins produced only during viral replication can be used to determine past or current infection with any of the 7 serotypes, regardless of whether the animal has been vaccinated. However, they are less sensitive and may give false negative results in cases of limited viral replication, such as when vaccinated animals become infected because the vaccine inhibits viral replication (OIETerrestrial Animal Health Code2019).
Treatment, control and prevention of foot-and-mouth disease in animals
In areas largely free of FMD, the disease is usually controlled by culling all animals in affected facilities and implementing animal movement controls to reduce the risk of virus transmission.
Vaccination before and after an outbreak can be used to limit the spread of disease in areas that are generally foot-and-mouth disease-free and endemic areas.
There is no treatment for infected animals.
OIE classifies countries and territories as: free from foot-and-mouth disease after vaccination; suspended FMD-free status with or without vaccination; and unrecognized (OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, 2019).
The current global status of foot-and-mouth disease distribution indicates geographic regions with chronically high foot-and-mouth disease prevalence. They are often found in economically difficult countries where veterinary services and resources are insufficient to control or eradicate foot-and-mouth disease.
Movement and trade restrictions on the combined use of animals and animal products have not fully prevented FMD from entering FMD-free areas. The invasion of these viruses into countries or areas that are not foot-and-mouth endemic is generally controlled by the destruction of all infected and susceptible animals in infected herds, strict restriction of the movement of animals and vehicles around infected facilities, proper handling of carcasses and disinfection of the environment, without the use of vaccines.
Inactivated virus vaccines provide protection for only 4 to 6 months against the specific serotypes contained in the vaccine. Billions of doses are used every year to protect animals from clinical disease, but the virus does not persist in the pharynx, so vaccinated animals can become carriers of the infectious virus. Furthermore, it is difficult to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals unless a purified vaccine is used. Therefore, vaccination is used more in countries with endemic animals to protect production animals, especially high-producing dairy cows, from clinical disease, since the destruction of all at-risk individuals may not be economically viable and may cause food shortages.
Rapid disease notification is essential to control FMD outbreaks in non-endemic countries. During an outbreak, surveillance is conducted through epidemiological surveys to help determine the source of disease introduction. Viral sequencing can also identify the source of closely related viruses. When mass destruction is carried out, infected carcasses should be disposed of by burning, burial or near the infected site. Scavengers and rodents must be avoided or eliminated to prevent mechanical transmission of the virus. Buildings should be cleaned and sprayed with a weak acid or alkaline disinfectant, and those who have been exposed to the virus should decontaminate their clothing and avoid contact with sensitive animals for a while.
In some regions, the persistence of FMD in wildlife populations, such as wild African buffalo, can make FMD eradication very difficult. Control measures, such as fencing off wildlife sanctuaries to prevent contact with domestic animals, have helped limit the spread of the virus in some areas. A buffer zone of twice-yearly vaccination among cattle near endemic wildlife reserves can also help reduce disease outbreaks. The Progressive Control Pathway (PCP), developed by FAO and endorsed by OIE, enables countries to improve their own control of foot and mouth disease and thereby improve the global disease situation.
There is no specific treatment for FMD, but supportive care may be allowed in endemic countries.
FMD can be successfully controlled by good veterinary services, which enable rapid diagnosis and the implementation of control measures, including in some cases the use of vaccines.
In countries where FMD is usually free, infected animals and animals at high risk of infection are destroyed. However, public concern over the mass culling has led to a search for improved vaccines to combat the disease.
Current vaccines have several limitations and require the production of large amounts of infectious virus before they can be inactivated. This must be done in expensive facilities with a high degree of retention.
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- (Video) Entropion/turn-in eyelid in lambs
- slobbering and smacking lips.
- tender and sore feet.
- reduced milk yield.
- sores and blisters on feet.
- raised temperature.
There is no specific treatment for FMD, but supportive care may be allowed in countries where FMD is endemic.What is foot-and-mouth disease veterinary? ›
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe and highly contagious viral disease. The FMD virus causes illness in cows, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, and other animals with divided hooves. It does not affect horses, dogs, or cats. FMD is not a public health or food safety threat.What are four animals that suffer from foot and mouth diseases? ›
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious and severe viral disease. It can cause incredible losses in cloven-hoofed livestock and wildlife species, including cattle, pigs, wild boar, sheep, bison, elk, deer and llamas. Many affected animals recover, but the disease leaves them weakened and debilitated.How do you detect FMD? ›
In order to diagnosis FMD, a test must be done to image the blood vessels. There are many options for imaging the arteries, including specialized blood vessel ultrasound known as duplex ultrasound; a CAT scan of the arteries which is obtained after a dye is given through the veins, or a special type of MRI.What is the difference between HFMD and FMD? ›
FMD is a disease of animals, not humans and is a different disease than Hand, foot, and mouth disease which is common in young children. FMD is not transmitted to humans by eating affected meat.Do animals recover from foot and mouth disease? ›
Cattle may have a high temperature and blisters occur on the feet and in the mouth. Excessive salivation, drooling and lameness are frequently observed. Blisters may also occur on the teats and udder making milking painful. Most diseased animals will recover in about 2 weeks.Can animals survive foot and mouth disease? ›
FMD is characterised by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves. The disease causes severe production losses, and while the majority of affected animals recover, the disease often leaves them weakened and debilitated.What causes foot and mouth in animals? ›
The disease is caused by a virus from the Picornaviridae family. There is no threat to human health from this disease. FMD is not the same as hand-foot-and-mouth disease which is a common disease in young children.Can foot, and mouth disease spread to humans? ›
The risk of Foot and Mouth disease being transmitted to humans visiting affected areas is extremely low, if consumption of unpasteurised milk, dairy products or unprocessed meat from infected animals and direct contact with such animals is avoided.
Is hand, foot, and mouth disease contagious? Yes. HFMD is caused by viruses. A person infected with one of these viruses is contagious, which means that they can pass the virus to other people.Can humans get foot, and mouth disease? ›
Foot and mouth disease affects animals, not humans and an outbreak has been reported in cattle in Indonesia and has since spread to Bali.What is the best way to treat foot and mouth? ›
There is no specific medical treatment for HFMD. You can take steps to relieve symptoms and prevent dehydration while you or your child are sick. Take over-the-counter medications to relieve fever and pain caused by mouth sores. These medications can include acetaminophen or ibuprofen.What are the complications of foot and mouth disease in animals? ›
- tongue erosions.
- secondary infection of lesions.
- hoof deformations.
- mastitis and permanent impairment of milk production.
- permanent weight loss.
Animals may become infected by contact with an infected animal, contaminated animal parts, or contaminated objects, such as farm equipment. The virus can survive in water and on surfaces for up to one month, depending on weather conditions. Under certain conditions wind can also spread the virus.What triggers FMD? ›
The cause of FMD is unknown. An angiogram can detect the degree of narrowing or obstruction of the artery and identify changes such as a tear (dissection) or weak area (aneurysm) in the vessel wall. FMD can also be diagnosed using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound.What is the gold standard test for FMD? ›
However, Doppler ultrasound is usually the first-line screening test for FMD, revealing turbulence, tortuosity, elevated velocity, and resistive indices. Angiography is the standard imaging approach for detecting fibromuscular dysplasia/arterial stenoses and aneurysms.How long is foot and mouth contagious? ›
How long is it contagious? You are generally most contagious during the first week of illness. But, children with hand, foot, and mouth disease may shed the virus from the respiratory tract (nose, mouth and lungs) for 1-3 weeks and in the stool for weeks to months after the infection starts.What are the three types of FMD? ›
FMD is mainly classified into three types: intimal, medial, and peri-adventitial fibroplasia.Can humans pass hand foot and mouth to animals? ›
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is often confused with foot-and-mouth disease (also called hoof-and-mouth disease), which affects cows, sheep, goats, and pigs. Humans do not get the animal disease, and animals do not get the human disease.
In good living condition with suitable treatments, animals will recover after 10 – 15 days. to enhance the immune system. For the effective treatment of secondary infection, using BIO-TYLOSIN-PC or BIO-D.O.C ® antibiotic.Can you eat meat that has foot and mouth? ›
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not a food safety or public health concern. Commercially produced meat, milk and dairy products would be safe to consume in an FMD outbreak.How long is hand foot and mouth quarantine? ›
Anyone with HFMD needs to feel well, be fever-free for at least 24 hours, and have all HFMD blisters completely healed for quarantine to end. For most people, this means avoiding contact with others for at least 7 days. HFMD is a very common viral illness.Why are animals with foot and mouth killed? ›
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of livestock causing fever followed by the development of vesicles (blisters) chiefly in the mouth and on the feet. FMD is generally not lethal to adult animals, but it can kill young animals and cause serious production losses.How do you control an FMD outbreak? ›
- Provide fresh drinking water in tanks. Monitor animals closely and frequently for any developing illness or signs of disease. Isolate sick animals from the herd to minimize disease spread. - Isolation should be at a minimum 28-30 days (which equals two incubation periods for FMD).Can dogs spread hand foot and mouth disease? ›
HFMD is not transmitted to or from pets or other animals. How is HFMD diagnosed? A health care provider can diagnose HFMD by considering the age of the patient, the symptoms, and the appearance of the rash and mouth sores during examination.What are the symptoms of FMD virus? ›
- Sore throat.
- Feeling sick.
- Painful, blister-like lesions on the tongue, gums and inside of the cheeks.
- A rash on the palms, soles and sometimes the buttocks. The rash is not itchy, but sometimes it has blisters. ...
- Fussiness in infants and toddlers.
- Loss of appetite.
Fever, lameness, and sores and blisters on the feet are also common symptoms. While FMD is not normally fatal to adult animals, it seriously impairs the affected animals' ability to eat and ambulate, resulting in loss in meat and milk production. In young animals it can be fatal.What is the indicator host of FMD? ›
FMD affects cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hooved animals. Cattle are the indicator hosts of the disease. They get FMD, become very sick and usually develop the well- known mouth and feet sores.What are the characteristics of FMD virus? ›
FMD is characterized by high fever, which declines rapidly after 23 days, and blisters inside the mouth and on the feet of the infected animal. These blisters extend to the mammary glands of female animals. These blisters may rupture and in the case of foot blisters result in lameness of the animal.
Is hand, foot, and mouth disease contagious? Yes. HFMD is caused by viruses. A person infected with one of these viruses is contagious, which means that they can pass the virus to other people.Is FMD contagious to humans? ›
The risk of Foot and Mouth disease being transmitted to humans visiting affected areas is extremely low, if consumption of unpasteurised milk, dairy products or unprocessed meat from infected animals and direct contact with such animals is avoided.Can animals recover from FMD? ›
Cattle may have a high temperature and blisters occur on the feet and in the mouth. Excessive salivation, drooling and lameness are frequently observed. Blisters may also occur on the teats and udder making milking painful. Most diseased animals will recover in about 2 weeks.How long does FMD last in animals? ›
FMD virus can remain infective in the environment for several weeks and possibly longer: in the presence of organic matter, such as soil, manure and dried animal secretions. or. on chemically inert materials, such as straw, hair and leather.
Although common household bleach would be an effective disinfectant for the FMD virus, the recommended concentration (3% sodium hypochlorite) is 60% of full strength as it comes from the bottle.Where is FMD usually found? ›
While FMD can be found in any location of the body, the most common areas are the renal arteries (leading to the kidneys) and the carotid and vertebral arteries in the neck that lead to the brain.What is the most likely incubation period of FMD? ›
FMD has a typical incubation period of 2–14 days. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recognizes the incubation period as 14 days. The viral dose, susceptible species, and route of infection all influence the speed with which signs of illness appear.Is FMD viral or bacterial? ›
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants.Is FMD an airborne disease? ›
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which can be transmitted by direct contact, fomites or through the air.